Roberto Cipriani


IIS CONFERENCE (7-12 JULY 2004) – SESSIONS on RELIGION AND GLOBALIZATION (Session 3, Global and peripheral cases).

The Jubilee of the year 2000 can be considered a “total social event”, in Marcel Mauss terms. It has been studied by sociologists working in seven Italian universities. Before this research no complete sociological study has been done on the Jubilee event. The definition of “total social event” involves many methods of research, leading to explore and to analyse multiple aspects. But the most important survey has been done on the pilgrims coming from many countries to participate in Jubilee. The sample has been multi-ethnic, concerning people from 18 to 75 old, women (58,1%) and men (41,9%), lodging in hotels (4 stars, 3 stars, 1-2 stars) and religious residences or day-trippers. People interviewed are 2023: 396 Italian speaking, 138 English speaking, 102 French speaking, 103 German speaking, 40 Portuguese speaking, 157 Spanish speaking, 46 Japanese speaking, 41 Polish speaking. Main results of this study are the following: the international participation has been large and mixed; it has been a relevant phenomenon of religious tourism, to say a spiritual experience in a socio-cultural and aesthetic context; to travel and to pray together has been a key-feature of Jubilee pilgrimage; a spirit of joy has characterized the Jubilee pilgrims, much more than a spirit of penance; the Jubilee of the year 2000 has been a global event of popular religiosity; the year 2000 pilgrims are learned persons; the official contents of Jubilee program aren’t well known (indulgence, penance, pardon for the sins, life revision); to see the Pope hasn’t been the most important reason to visit Rome in the year 2000; national and linguistic differences influence the Jubilee perception; the Jubilee pilgrims are regular in their religious practice, but not in behavior and attitude; during the Jubilee of the year 2000 the prayer has been a common and well diffused religious experience; the celebration of Gay Pride in Rome has been controversial in pilgrims evaluation; Rome has been very attractive because of churches, monuments and museums; Saint Peter’s basilica and holy door have been the most visited places.